Q&A

# How can I assign the result of an operation from within a function to the global environment?

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−0

I have a function that which does some calculations. I would like to assign the result of the function to the global environment from within the function, how do I proceed?

A minimal example:

``````meanFUN <- function(x) {
mean(x, na.rm = TRUE)
}
``````

How can I assign the result from `mean(x, na.rm = TRUE)` from within the function to the global environment?

Why should this post be closed?

#### 1 comment

Note that super-assigning directly to the global environment is generally frowned upon as each time the function is called it will change (or create) that global variable. It is preferable for the function to return the value and then it can be assigned - this way you don't have to worry about the global value changing in unpredictable ways. ‭Sigma‭ 17 days ago

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In order to assign a variable to the global environment from within a function, there are two ways to proceed: either using the assign operator `<<-` or using `assign()`.

`<<-` comes with the following behaviour: It goes through all environments until it finds the variable in question and replaces it with the current value or creates it anew if it's not found. (Everything run in R 4.0.)

``````> global_x <- 1
> global_x
 1
> meanFUN <- function(x) {
+  global_x <<- mean(x, na.rm = TRUE)
+ }
> meanFUN(c(1:5))
> global_x
 3
``````

This will create a new variable called `global_x` in the global environment from which it can be accessed and `global_x` will be changed each time the function is run. However, if `global_x` is found in an environment before the global environment, it will be changed there. If we have a function inside a function with the same variable name across different environments and use the `<<-` operator, `<<-` will only change the first occurrence of the variable in question, so to speak in the overarching local environment of the outer function and not in the global environment.

``````> global_x <- 1
> global_x
 1
> meanFUN <- function(x) {
+   global_x <- 100
+
+   insideFunction <- function(x) {
+     local_x <- mean(x, na.rm = TRUE)
+     assign("global_x", local_x, envir = .GlobalEnv)
+     print(global_x)
+   }
+
+   print(global_x)
+   insideFunction(x)
+ }
> meanFUN(c(1:5))
 100
 3
> global_x
 1
>
``````

To avoid mistakes while using `<<-`, it's better to use `assign()` which gives precise control over what is assigned where.

``````> global_x <- 1
> global_x
 1
> meanFUN <- function(x) {
+    global_x <- 100
+
+     insideFunction <- function(x) {
+       global_x <- mean(x, na.rm = TRUE)
+       assign("global_x", global_x, envir = .GlobalEnv)
+       print(global_x)
+     }
+
+     print(global_x)
+     insideFunction(x)
+   }
> meanFUN(c(1:5))
 100
 3
> global_x
 3
``````

On Stack Overflow is a similar question where it's explained in even greater detail: https://stackoverflow.com/a/10904810/3884967.

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You need to assign the result to a variable as follows (pay attention to the double less than sign)

`meanFUN <- function(x) { gvar <<- mean(x, na.rm = TRUE) }` 